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3D Contrast MR Angiography - download pdf or read online

By Martin R. Prince MD, PhD, Thomas M. Grist M.D., Jörg F. Debatin M.D., MBA (auth.)

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Immediately prior to the scan the tubing is primed with gadolinium such that once the injection begins there is no delay to fill the tubing. Once the contrast injection and saline flush are completed, a damp on the tubing is engaged so that it can be removed without fluid dripping out of the tubing. Regardless of the injection method used, iv access should be maintained for 5-10 minutes after performing the injection before removing the iv since most allergic reactions occur during this time. What Happens If Gadolinium Extravasates?

How Should 3D MRA Data Sets Be Interpreted? 3D MR angiography image data are best interpreted on an independent computer workstation with 3D reconstruction capabilities. Image analysis should always include careful scrutiny of the individual source images as weil as thin multiplanar reformations of the underlying 3D data set in multiple planes. In this way, venous overlap can be eliminated and the course of tortuous vessels can be unfolded. Indeed, this represents a significant advantage of 3D MR angiography over conventional angiography.

On most MR systems it may also be necessary to select a "full echo" or nearly full echo in order to implement the fractional NEX option. This prolongs the echo time slightly and may give rise to more flow related artifacts. However, with high performance gradients, acceptable echo times of less than 3 ms may still be achieved. In this setting, partial NEX is highly recommended as a way of efficiently reducing scan time. 30 CHAPTER 1 Basic Concepts What Is Zero-Filling, And How Does This Effect Reconstructed Spatial Resolution?

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