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Get A clinical guide to pediatric weight management and obesity PDF

By Sandra Gibson Hassink MD

This convenient, useful consultant presents clinicians with a finished method of the scientific administration of obese teenagers and teens. insurance starts off with the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and developmental features of kid and adolescent weight problems and a advisor to assessment of overweight youngsters. next chapters deal with respiration, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, orthopaedic, gastrointestinal, renal, and neurologic problems and comorbid stipulations in addition to psychological well-being concerns, acute obesity-related emergencies, and weight problems as a part of genetic syndromes. Pathophysiology is associated with medical presentation, overview, and therapy, and way of life matters are mentioned the place applicable. Highlighted bins and algorithms aid clinicians locate and digest info quickly.

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4. Energy imbalance in the community. include lack of skills, equipment, knowledge, and interest as well as a place to do physical activity. Lack of partners for physical activities and teasing constitute social barriers to physical activity (26). Families need to be aware of these factors in order to facilitate an increase in their obese child’s or adolescent’s activity. Television, video games, and computers all contribute to increased sedentary activity. A study showed that children who watched television at least 4 hours per day were less likely to engage in vigorous physical activity and had greater BMIs and skin fold measurements than those who watched television less than 2 hours per day (27).

2. Adipocytes, with centrally stored fat and peripheral nuclei, as well as vascular stromal elements. receptors have been detected in most tissues, and the hypothalamic nuclei involved in energy regulation are a major target for leptin action. Leptin also affects expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene by neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (43). As a result ␣-, ␤-, and ␥melanocyte–stimulating hormones are produced. These peptides signal target neurons in the lateral hypothalamus that express the melanocortin receptors MC3-R and 5592_LWW_Ch03pp018-029 9/22/06 7:33 AM Page 25 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF OBESITY 25 MC4-R, which results in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure (44).

Overweight and obesity in infants of mothers with long-term insulin dependent diabetes or gestational diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:451–456. 3. Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Berkey CS, Field AE, Colditz GA. Maternal gestational diabetes, birth weight and adolescent obesity. Pediatrics. 2003;111(3):e221–e226. 4. Freinkel N. Of pregnancy and progeny (Banting lecture 1980). Diabetes. 1980;29:1023–1035. 5. Veening M, Van Weissenbruch M, Delemarre-Van de Wall H. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in children born small for gestational age.

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