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Download PDF by Stephen Grossberg: Adaptive Brain

By Stephen Grossberg

Those books compile contemporary neural types of imaginative and prescient, speech and language acceptance and keep in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, consciousness, circadian rhythms, motor keep watch over, and sure psychological problems. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary information from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for desktop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing trend acceptance machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.

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Drives describe the organism’s momentary state, whereas incentives summarize the organism’s history. Incentives are thus used to explain many of the performance variations that are not directly due to momentary drives or to associative properties of habits. For example, Crespi (1942,1944) emphasized the motivational properties of incentives by running different groups of rats in a straight alley to large or small quantities of food. Not surprisingly, large-amount animals performed better than small-amount animals.

We now show that to satisfy these postulates in a world wherein events continually buffet our senses, and wherein our long-term memories are spatially, albeit nonlocally, coded requires additional network structure. To see this, we observe a continual stream of patterns from the viewpoint of an outstar. We ask, how can an outstar learn anything at all if unsynchronized patterns continually flow by? In particular, suppose that the outstar 0, attempts to learn a prescribed pattern d ’ ) in a sequence d ’ ) ,d’), .

It can act the same way as drive reduction does in later learning experiments. Hull supposed that the mechanism for this is r c . Thus the occurrence of r~ should act like drive reduction. However, the motivating effects of a secondary reinforcer were also ascribed to an increase in incentive motivation, or r ~ . How can rC both be drive reducing and drive increasing? Given Hull’s formulation, it seemed hard to argue that rG is both reinforcing and motivating. This problem is overcome in the network theory.

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