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By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

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The velar /ŋ/ does not occur in Persian. The Iranian learner of English, therefore, replaces the /ŋ/ phoneme by a sequence of two phonemes /n/, and /g/. In English, whenever the letter n appears before the letters g and k, it is pronounced as /ŋ/. Nasal sounds are considered to belong to the stop category along with plosives and affricates. The nasal “occlusives” of the vast majority of the world's languages are voiced. Very few not-so-famous languages have voiceless nasals too. During the production of these nasal “occlusives”, the soft palate is lowered to a greater or lesser extent, allowing a portion of the airstream to pass through the nasal CHAPTER THREE 43 cavity.

Approximants are never fricative and never completely block the flow of air. closed glottis posterior shunt (in /h/) open glottis Adjustments of the larynx for phonation (Reprinted—with some modifications—from Lieberman and Blumstein, 1988, P. 111) [h] is an interesting case. It is a voiceless glottal fricative. , the posterior shunt) in its upper part at the level of the arythenoidal cartilage. A strong friction develops when air flows through this opening. One point of caution is, however, necessary here.

Membranes) stretched across the airway to the lungs. They can vibrate against each other, providing much of the sound during speech. Glottis refers to the opening between the vocal cords. During a glottal stop, the vocal cords are held together and there is no opening between them. Larynx is the structure that holds and manipulates the vocal cords. The "Adam's apple" in males is the bump formed by the front part of the larynx. As it was mentioned in the previous chapter, human beings can not only produce sounds but also noise by means of their vocal tracts.

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