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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and - download pdf or read online

By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes

Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medications has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and assets of drug-resistant pathogens, the results for international healthiness, and the concepts to reduce the present and destiny impression of those superbugs.

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Dr. ) 1. Most foodborne diseases are zoonoses (infectious diseases that can be transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans). 2. The use of antimicrobials ������������������������������������������������������������� in food animals selects for zoonotic bacteria that can transfer resistance genes to human pathogens. , 2010). , 2009). 3. Foodborne diseases involving resistant bacteria have been associated with an increase in adverse human health consequences. These include ���������������������������������������������������������������� more frequent treatment failure, greater severity of infection, prolonged duration of infection, more bloodstream infections, and, as previously noted, longer hospitalizations and increased mortality, Schlundt said.

SOURCE: Walsh (2003). : Nature Reviews Microbiology Walsh, Copyright 2003. , 2010; Davies, 2009). , 2006). Every isolate proved to be resistant to multiple antibiotic drugs. Wright also reported similar levels of resistance to clinical antibiotics in bacterial samples collected from a Kentucky cave system that has been sealed from the external environment for about 2 million years (Gerard Wright, McMaster University, personal communication, April 6, 2010). Antibiotic-resistance genes isolated from soil bacteria and those isolated from clinical pathogens share similar structures and functions, Wright noted.

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 4 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 Number of infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria FIGURE WO-10 Economic burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria: nomogram for in-hospital costs. eps bitmaps with some vector type & masks SOURCE: ECDC and EMEA (2009). , 2010). To control for confounding factors among patient populations that can be measured, researchers use regression or other statistical analyses of randomly sampled populations.

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