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New PDF release: Atlas of Prostatic Cytology: Techniques and Diagnosis

By Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Leistenschneider, Prof. Dr. Reinhard Nagel (auth.)

Diagnostic and exfoliative cytology has at the present time completed a standing that few can have envisaged two decades in the past. whereas exfoliative cytology has lengthy been hired in gynecological analysis, new and lucrative spheres have now built within which cytological analysis performs a massive function. Exfoliative cytology, for instance, is generally hired as an reduction within the non-stop review of urinary tract tumors, and aspiration cytology within the prognosis of thyroid dis­ eases. This has given upward push to a turning out to be call for for pathologists skilled in cytological prognosis. besides the fact that, clinicians with an curiosity in morphology have been frequently the 1st to undertake those easy and secure equipment, being evidently attracted via the opportunity to prevent accomplishing biopsy, which, within the final research, is not anything lower than a surgery. during this Atlas of Prostatic Cytology Leistenschneider and Nagel expertly display what may be accomplished while clinicians expert in morphology take an curiosity in cytological tools. not just have they got direct touch with the sufferer, yet additionally they make the most of instantly being able to determine the result of their diagnostic tactics by means of studying the specimen acquired. From the technical viewpoint aspiration biopsy of the prostate is under no circumstances an easy approach and the problems concerned would appear to were underestimated within the preliminary part of enthusiastic acclaim. hence it's been commonplace for clinicians and pathologists to be disenchanted by means of the excessive cost of unsatisfactory samples got by way of this method.

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Extra resources for Atlas of Prostatic Cytology: Techniques and Diagnosis

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1 Papanicolaou II (Atypia Without Evidence of Malignancy) (Figs. 31-34) The prostatic epithelial cells show only minor deviations from normal findings, which 39 Table 6. Cytological parameters for atypia of the prostate Nuclear size/shape Anisokaryosis Nuclear Chromatin arrangement Nuclear membrane Nucleoli Pap II Small, round Slight Slightly disturbed Loosely granular Intact Slightly conspicuous Pap III Small, round to oval Moderate Slightly disturbed Condensed Some intact Conspicuous Pap IV Enlarged, some round, some oval Pronounced, Markedly diffuse disturbed Markedly Few condensed, intact homogeneous Conspicuous, some prominent above all occur with respect to variation in nuclear size and arrangement.

X 630 Fig. 38a. Pap IV atypia: marked variation in nuclear size, moderately condensed chromatin and more pronounced disturbance of the nuclear arrangement; conspicuous nucleoli, in places beginning to become prominent. x 400 46 Fig. 38b. Same group of cells at higher magnification: the condensed chromatin and the local prominence of the nucleoli are now more clearly recognizable. x 630 Fig. 39a. Pap IV atypia: marked variation in nuclear size and increased chromatin density; conspicuous to prominent nucleoli.

Same case at higher magnification: nucleoli are still only conspicuous, not prominent. The nuclear chromatin is only slightly condensed. Many nuclear membranes are still clearly distinguishable. x 630 45 Fig. 37 a. Pap IV atypia: more severe disturbance of nuclear arrangement in the upper part of the picture. Marked variation in nuclear size; conspicuous, and in part prominent, nucleoli. x 400 Fig. 37b. Same case at higher magnification: the loss of the uniform nuclear pattern is more easily recognizable; in the lower part of the picture there are several nuclei that contain prominent nucleoli;, disturbance of the chromatin distribution is seen in places.

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