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Download e-book for iPad: Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace by Douglas P. Fry

By Douglas P. Fry

The vintage beginning scene of 2001, an area Odyssey exhibits an ape-man wreaking havoc with humanity's first invention--a bone used as a weapon to kill a rival. It's a picture that matches good with well known notions of our species as inherently violent, with the concept that people are--and consistently have been--warlike via nature. yet as Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues in past conflict, the evidence convey that our historical ancestors weren't innately warlike--and neither are we.Fry issues out that, for maybe ninety-nine percentage of our background, for good over 1000000 years, people lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer teams, egalitarian bands the place generosity used to be hugely valued and conflict was once a rarity. Drawing on archaeology and engaging fieldwork on hunter-gatherer bands from worldwide, Fry debunks the concept warfare is historical and inevitable. for example, between Aboriginal Australians--who numbered a few 750,000 participants ahead of the coming of Europeans, all residing in hunter-gathering groups--warfare was once an severe anomaly. there has been person violence and aggression, after all, however the Aborigines had subtle tools of resolving disputes, controlling person outbursts, and combating dying. Fry exhibits that, faraway from being traditional, battle really seemed particularly lately besides adjustments in social association and particularly the increase of states. yet Fry additionally issues out that even this day, while conflict turns out ever current (at least on television), the majority of us stay peaceable, nonviolent lives. we're not as warlike because it may appear, and if we will examine from our ancestors, we are able to movement past struggle to supply actual justice and safeguard for the folk of the world.A profoundly heartening view of human nature, past battle deals a hopeful point of view on our species and a good analysis for a destiny with no war.

Reviews:

"This is a passionate ebook containing a tidy account of structures of struggle and peace."--New Scientist

"This e-book bargains a fresh and well timed examine the facts that we've got conflict in our genes. sincerely, the assumptions of these who argue this place exceed the proof. utilizing anthropological information, Fry argues forcefully that our species has not just a robust hope for peace, but additionally lots of how one can in attaining it."--Frans de Waal, writer of Our internal Ape

"If you suspect humanity is doomed to warfare, learn this ebook. in order to persuade others that it's not, learn this publication. Fry does vitally important issues in past warfare. He indicates that people should not innately warlike and are totally able to residing in peace. And he indicates how earlier scholarship has been biased through an assumption of a "beast within." His magisterial journey of the facts is obvious, brilliant, and entertaining."--Brian Ferguson, writer of Yanomami war: A Political History

"Few questions are as debatable and consequential as even if warfare is "natural." during this very important e-book, Fry does a very good activity of demystifying the argument, whereas creating a powerful case for optimism. Human nature is a slippery factor, an idea usually misused, but an important to realizing our prior, current, and destiny. past struggle might help student and lay-person alike to understand hold."--David P. Barash, writer of Madame Bovary¹s Ovaries: A Dawinian examine Literature

"An very important and well timed quantity, [Beyond War]...is a priceless addition to the perennial debates on warfare."--American Anthropologist

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Extra info for Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace

Example text

Again, preconceived beliefs sometimes cloud an objective evaluation of the evidence. This lesson foreshadows our main story about Raymond Dart. Following the Taung discovery, first Robert Bloom and later Dart himself searched for and found additional australopithecine fossils. Some specimens were classified as belonging to the same species as the Taung child, Australopithecus africanus, and other fossils eventually were given the species name Australopithecus robustus— or robust southern ape. These australopithecine fossils from South Africa are roughly two million to three million years old.

A central point is that conflict need not involve any aggression whatsoever. Aggression and conflict are not synonymous. In this book, the term violence is reserved for severe forms of physical aggression, including war and feud. Thus, simply shouting angrily at someone without any physical contact is neither physical aggression nor violence. Shouting is verbal aggression. If the verbal tirade escalates to slapping or pushing, this mild physical aggression generally would not be considered serious enough to warrant calling it violence.

Members of both sexes gather yams, hunt, fish, collect honey, and prepare food. Food is not a scarce resource. "16 Paliyan prefer to live in a band with their primary relatives. Gardner discovered that virtually equal numbers of people were living with maternal kin as with paternal kin. 17 The Paliyan place great value on individual autonomy, equality, and respect. To Paliyan thinking, anyone who interferes with the freedom of another person is acting disrespectfully. "18 As this instance reflects, the broader principle is that neither a wife nor a husband has the right to give orders to the other.

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